Irregular Periods/Irregular menstrual cycles
It is a Syndrome manifested with delayed periods/Irregular uterine Bleeding, Excessive facial hair and obesity. Usually diagnosed by ultrasound pelvis which shows multiple small cysts in Both Ovaries along with other Symptoms.
This is the most common disorder affecting almost 10% of Women in the reproductive age group (16-45year) The incidence in now increasing due to lifestyle and stress
The Cause in exactly not known but few factors to be considered are

Causes

1 ) It Runs in Families.
High chances if mother /grandmother or siblings have such a condition.

2)Sedentary lifestyle, Stress, and Weight gain
In day to day life, physical Exercise has reduced and stress levels have increased which leads to Obesity and rapid weight gain which leads to insulin resistance and hormonal imbalance

3)Obesity

Weight gain is the major factor in PCOS as it alters the body's metabolism and aggravates the Pathology. Especially women with more abdominal circumference are more prone to metabolic syndrome-like diabetes and hypertension

Genetic Mutations like cyp 21 gene mutation also play a role

Symptoms
  • Adolescent girls may be troubled by
    irregular periods due to anovulation,
  • Acne, Excessive facial hair, and Alopecia due to Excessive male hormone secretion. Married women may fail to conceive. It is the reason for almost 20% of infertility cases.
  • Women may present with rapid weight gain which causes Insulin resistance and other manifestations like dark pigmentation on the neck ( Acanthosis nigricans).
Complications
  • Due to disturbance in Body metabolism women may have Diabetes, Hypertension and
    dyslipidaemia which may result in Cardiovascular accidents.'
  • Due to anovulation, progesterone support is absent and this may lead to endometrial hyperplasia
    and may cause heavy menstrual bleeding which on long term may result in endometrial cancer
Treatments
  • LifeStyle Modification
    Weight loss plays a key role in overcoming the effects of PCOS. Women should lose at least 10% of body weight and keep BMI in the normal range of 18-23. To combat the effects of anovulation and androgen excess.
  • Diet modification, physical exercise, and yoga and meditation to overcome stress plays major
    role.
  • Oral contraceptive pills help to overcome Acne and hirsutism and abnormal uterine bleeding. These
    has to be used for the long term.
  • Women planning for conception will be advised ovulation induction and follicle growth will be monitored regularly and ovulation is triggered by injections and timely intercourse may result in a successful pregnancy.
  • Long term follow up is necessary
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